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By 1846, the lands that comprised the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas, and where Austin had built his colony, had seen tumultuous changes. Not only had the Texians won independence from Mexico in 1836, but they also formed the independent Republic of Texas and continued to skirmish with Mexico for nearly ten years before finally becoming a U.S. state on December 29th, 1845.
The map titled Map of Texas from the Most Recent Authorities displays a more mature and recognizable image of the Texas coastline, including one of the first notations of the location of the towns of Quintana and Velasco (modern-day Surfside).
The map was published by Samuel Augustus Mitchell in Philadelphia as part of an atlas, which is important in American printing history because it was the first set of maps to be converted from engraved plates to lithographic plates, greatly reducing printing cost and making the atlas widely affordable by the public.
El Camino Real in Texas, sometimes known in the 18th century as the Camino Real de Los Tejas, was not a single trail. It was a network of regional routes separately known as the Camino Pita, the Upper Presidio Road; the Lower Presidio Road, also called the Camino de en Medio; the Camino Arriba; and the San Antonio-Nacogdoches Road or Old San Antonio Road of the mid-19th century, portions of which are still marked with the designation “OSR” on Texas highway maps and road signs.